A&E attendance for people with dementia is increasing

Categories: Care.

Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association, states that in recent years there has been a drop in the number of people with dementia dying in hospital, which has widely been seen as demonstrating better end of life care. However, the team of researchers from King’s College London found that over three quarters of people with dementia were seen in A&E in their last year of life. This has also been increasing over time.

For people who are approaching the end of life, attending A&E can be distressing. It is also often unnecessary and can be prevented. Sometimes people with dementia do need to be admitted to hospital, but admissions can also lead to deterioration, with an increased risk of infections, bedsores and distress.

In the study, the researchers identified people who had dementia and who had died over a five year period (2008 – 2013).

The paper’s main findings include:

Out of 4,867 people with dementia who had died, 78.6 per cent had at least one A&E attendance during their last year of life.

These findings are similar to those from the USA and Australia, where 81 per cent and 73 per cent of people with dementia had an A&E attendance in their last year of life.

A&E attendance became more common the closer people were to death, with just under half (44.5%) having an A&E attendance in their last month of life, and a fifth of people with dementia attending A&E in their last week of life.

People living in a care home had fewer A&E attendances, which may be because plans were put in place to avoid this.

The likelihood of attending A&E increased over time: people who died in the most recent year studied were 1.6 times more likely to attend A&E than in previous years.

Lead author, Dr Katherine Sleeman from the Cicely Saunders Institute at King’s College London, said:

“Recognition of the need to improve end of life for people with dementia has been increasing.  This includes enabling them to be cared for in their home or a care home. However, our results show a worrying increase in the reliance on emergency care. In light of the current pressures on the health service, our ageing population and the associated increase in deaths from dementia, there is an urgent need to look at ways we can provide better support for care in the community.”

“A strong policy focus on dying out of hospital as a marker of good end of life care may have contributed to the fall in hospital deaths in dementia in recent years. However, our results show that A&E attendance in the last year of life follows the opposite trend. Policy makers need to consider a broader range of indicators of the quality of end of life care alongside the place of death.”

Co-author Professor Robert Stewart, CRIS Lead and Consultant Old Age Psychiatrist at King’s College London said:

“Most people with dementia have a number of other health problems as well as difficulties arising from dementia itself. Sometimes people do need to be taken to A&E and sometimes time in hospital is needed; however, this is often distressing and disruptive and most people want to keep it to a minimum. A lot of hospital use could be avoided if there was a higher level of support in the community. This includes clearer plans in place for dealing with illnesses when they occur and when they do not necessarily need hospital services.”

The team used the NIHR Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) database linked to Hospital Episodes Statistics from NHS Digital to provide information on Emergency Department use among people with dementia in their last year of life.  Dr Katherine Sleeman is also a NIHR Clinician Scientist.

King’s will continue to focus on world-leading education, research and service, and will have an have an increasingly proactive role to play in a more interconnected, complex world. Their website has more information about Vision 2029, King’s strategic vision for the next 12 years, which will be the 200th anniversary of the founding of the university. 

Commenting in response, Carole Walford, Chief Clinical Officer at Hospice UK said:

“This research raises questions about whether people with dementia in their last year of life are getting the support they need. In many cases hospital is not the best environment for people with dementia and can be disruptive and stressful for them.”

“There needs to be other options beyond acute care for people with dementia approaching the end of life, including community-based care provided by hospices.”

“Hospices are reaching out to more people with dementia, especially in providing person-centred care in their own homes and also by working in partnership with care homes.”

“Hospice UK is working with Dementia UK to bring together practitioners and clinical leaders from across all care settings who are keen to build their skills and knowledge in providing high quality palliative and end of life care for people and their families affected by dementia.”

For further information, visit the National Institute for Health Research and Hospice UK’s response

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